STON CHARTER OF BAN STEFAN II KONTROMANIĆ | Plemenito

STON CHARTER OF BAN STEFAN II KONTROMANIĆ | Plemenito

STON CHARTER OF BAN STEFAN II KONTROMANIĆ


Note

The first one who clearly identifies the language in the Bosnian state is ban Stjepan II Kotromanić in his charter to Dubrovnik from 1333. Four copies of the charter were made, two copies each for the Bosnian ban and Dubrovnik , two in Latin and two in Serbian language. The Latin language was the main language in Dubrovnik, while Serbian language was, as can be seen, in medieval Bosnia. The charter is written in the uncial Cyrillic, as all other domestic charters of ban were.

Dubrovnik, with its office in charge of diplomatic correspondence with its hinterland, also casts light on the linguistic identity of the medieval Bosnian state. Namely, from the beginning of the 13th century Dubrovnik official correspondence with the states in its hinterland is conducted exclusively in the Serbian language. In Dubrovnik Latin documents, the name Serb is translated as Sclavus, and the Serbian language as a sclavonico. The scribe of Serbian charters in Dubrovnik is translated into Latin as cancellarius sclav(ic)us, sclavonicus.

Thus, a part of the ban Stefan II charter, which in Serbian version reads “two Serbian and two Latin”, in the Latin version of the charter is translated as “duo scripta in gramatica latina, et alia in sclauonico”. Copies of the charters received by Stefan are probably lost forever, while the original Latin script and a transcription of the Serbian version are kept in Dubrovnik, saved in the collection Liber Privilegiorum, which is often referred to in literature as Codex Ragusinus, which was compiled together some hundred years later Dubrovnik Chancellor Nikša Zvijezdić.

The Latin version of the charter was prepared by Milko Brković, Historical collection, 10, Banja Luka, 1989.

Serbian version of the charter was prepared by Dejan Ječmenica, Materials on history of Bosnia, 3, Banja Luka, 2010.

Literature: D. Ječmenica, Ston Charter of Stefan II Kotromanić, Materials on history of Bosnia, 3, 2010, Banja Luka, 39; M. Brković, Latin charter of Bosnian ban Stjepan II Kotromanić from the year 1333 (15, II) Historical collection, 10, Banja Luka, 1989, 9; M. Dinić, Serbian countries in the Middle Ages, Belgrade, 1978, 34; L. M. Kostić, Violent acquisition of Dubrovnik Culture, Melbourne, 1975, 41.

Translation


TRANSLATION OF THE LATIN VERSION

In the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, amin. In the year of the lord one thousand three hundred thirty-third, the first indiction ( indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe) fifteenth day of the month of February. Stefan, by grace of God ban of Bosnia, Soli, Usora, and the sovereign lord of the entire Zachlumia land. If we love our dedicated friends and servants and bestow upon them our kindness with love, as we kindly unchanged, showing them individually grace, proclaim it thus for all, current and future, that we are, after seeing dedication and sincere benevolence, as well as services mentioned earlier, which were magnificently performed for us and our predecessors by Municipality and people of Dubrovnik and their ancestors, and services which they would perform for us in the future, with consent of God, through us and our sons, heirs and offspring by the male line until end of the world, we release and bestow upon the Municipality and people of Dubrovnik, our already mentioned dearest and dedicated friends, the whole Ston peninsula, with Prevlaka, and everything belonging to it and is found beneath or above it and with all rights and jurisdictions for which is known to concern it in any way, and with all villages, fields, mountains, forests, groves, waters, pastures, bosquets, with right to tax and judge and pacify the blood, all the way until headland Loište, to have, hold, possess and use, and to do with it as they please, as they would with their own possession. The said Municipality and people of Dubrovnik can wall of and fortify Rat and Prevala and dig trench from sea to sea, in the place they decide within these lands according to their own free will. And if Rat and Prevlaka, or part of them or lands and possession within the wall were disturbed or interfered with, to the mentioned Municipality of Dubrovnik and its people, either in general or individually, on one occasion or many, the ban mentioned above is obligated, with his sons and male descendants and heirs, to support and help the said Municipality and people of Dubrovnik in defense against troubles with all his might until the ending of the world. Due to this, we the people and Municipality of Dubrovnik, binding ourselves with all goods of the said Municipality, do promise and pledge to give and pay to lord ban, as receiver and guarantor for himself and his offspring and heirs in the male line, in name of tribute and tax five hundred coins in currency in use at that date in Dubrovnik for the mentioned Rat and Prevlaku, every year in Dubrovnik on the day of St. Vlachos, until ending of the world. It may come to pass that ban and his sons and heirs in male line become rulers of Zachlumian land, and even if it doesn’t happen, he still should receive every year on feast of St. Vlachos above mentioned five hundred coins in a manner already described, until ending of the world. And if it happens that ban himself or his sons or male heirs should someday wish to come and dwell in Dubrovnik, we the people and Municipality of Dubrovnik pledge one built house will be given and relinquished for duration of the stay without any recompense and we pledge as well that we, the people and Municipality of Dubrovnik will not harbor or receive in Ston or Prevlaka or in the islands which was given and relinquished unto us by said lord ban any of his nobles which rebelled or is disobedient to this same lord ban, his sons and male heirs, until ending of the world. We, the already named ban Stefan, swear in our own name, name of our sons and male heirs upon the God’s gospel and the four evangelists and twelve apostles and all saintly remains enshrined in the Municipality of Dubrovnik, that we shall uphold everything said and will not act against this or go against it in court or deed, in any way or for any reason, neither I nor my sons nor my male heirs until ending of the world. And for everything said above we, the people and Municipality of Dubrovnik, pledge for ourselves and our descendants and male heirs until end of the world, on the God’s gospel and four evangelists and twelve apostles and all saintly remains enshrined in Municipality of Dubrovnik, that we shall not go against this or in court and deed work against it in any way or for any reason. As a testimony and more official affirmation of probity, we ordered that it be recorded and authenticated by our golden hanging seal. Done under fortress of Srebrenik, in presence of noble men Vitan Teoradić, Radoslav Hlapović, Miloš Vukasić, Hrvatin Stefanić, Stefan Druščić. Tvrtko Ivanhić with pristavs (pristav, medieval title whose rough equivalent would be provost or administrator) Divoš, known as Tihoradić, Štetko Hlapović and Mihailo Menčetić, citizens of Dubrovnik. Regarding the whole affair, four charters have been written, identical to each other, two of them written in Latin and two written in Serbian. Lord ban possess two copies, one written in Latin and one in Serbian, and we, the people and Municipality of Dubrovnik, likewise have two – one in Latin and the other in Serbian language.

Outside: Stefan of Bosnia bestows Ston and Rat

 TRANSLATION OF THE SERBIAN VERSION

In the beginning of the Father, in the fulfillment of Son and Holy Spirit. In the summer 1333rd since the birth of Christ, first indiction, on the 15th day of the month of February. We, lord Stefan, by grace of God ban of Bosnia, Usora, Soli and lord of the Zachlumian land, in manner in which we love our friends and servants and give unto them our grace with love and benefits, as it is dignified to treat everyone, may all know it on this day and all days which will come afterwards, Amin. I have seen the good testimony and many deeds of legacy done by nobility and people of Dubrovnik to our ancestors and us as well, and willing to work from now with will of God, we, lord ban Stefan and my sons and grandsons and all of my posterity for as long as there are any, eternally, give and gift as heirdom and noble heritage to people of Dubrovnik, our dear friends, the whole Rat and Ston and Prevlaka and islands which lay around Rat with everything found within Rat and Prevlaka – hills and fields, forests and groves, meadows, waters, villages and everything from Prevlaka to Loište, courts and fines and blood feuds be ordered by their will, to have and hold and to enact their will and wishes as if it was their heritage, for eternity, and they are free to build towers, and other things useful to them and to dig through Prevlaka from sea to sea in accordance with their will and wishes. Lord ban Stefan, swears additionally, for himself and his sons and descendants that in case some lord or nobleman or citizen or people would decide to harm Rat or Prevlaka at certain time, he and his kin would help in accordance with strength at their disposal. For this, we the Municipality and people of Dubrovnik city from our common wealth, to lord ban Stefan and his sons and male descendants until end of time and end of the world, will give for Ston and Prevlaka 500 coins, which would be received in our Dubrovnik in agreed time. If a time comes that ban and his sons and his male descendants are not lords of the Zachlumian lands, we the Dubrovnik Municipality will give the agreed tax of 500 coins on the day of St. Vlachos as agreed above. Dubrovnik Municipality makes also promise, as long as the world lasts, that in case lord ban or his sons or male descendants should visit Dubrovnik they will be provided with palaces to reside in, for the duration of his stay, without any rent. Municipality of Dubrovnik further promises it will not receive in Prevlaka, Ston and Rat and isles, received from lord ban Stefan, any of his noblemen disloyal to ban or his sons or male heirs until ending of the world. And I, lord ban Stefan swear upon God’s Holy gospel and four evangelists and twelve apostles and all the saintly remains enshrined in Dubrovnik, for myself, my sons and male heirs until end of the world, to keep and respect what is said here and never to break it until ending of the world. And for all written above, we the Municipality and all people from Dubrovnik swear upon God’s Holy gospel and four evangelists and twelve apostles and all the saintly remains enshrined in Dubrovnik, in our names, names of our sons and male heirs until end of the world, to keep and firmly respect until end of the world unchanged. Thus do I, lord ban Stefan place my golden seal, so it is believed, so all to know and see the truth. Regarding this matter, four identical charters have been made, two in Latin and two in Serbian language, all sealed with the golden seal. Two charters remain in possession of lord ban Stefan, while two remain in Dubrovnik. Written under city of Srebrenik with witnesses, called and requested, being Vitan Teoradić, Radoslav Hlapović, Miloš Vukasić, Hrvatin Stefanić, Stefan Druščić, Tvrtko Ivanhić and three pristavs (pristav, medieval title whose rough equivalent would be provost or administrator) Divoš Tihoranić, Štitko Hlapović and Mihailo Menčetić Dubrovčanin.

Translation of the Latin inscription:

1333, on the 15th February, privilege done under Srebrenik. Ban Stefan affirms the gift of Rat and the islands which are (…) 500 coins of income to king of Bosnia, without accepting anyone from Bosnia in Ston or Rat.

 

TRANSLATE: Ljubisa Malenica